Biology and Its Different Branches

All You Need About Biology and Its Different Branches in A Nutshell

The word ‘biology’ is derived from two Greek words- bios (meaning life) and Logia (meaning the study of). As the name itself suggests, biology is the study of life. This is a simple definition of biology. A more comprehensive definition would take into account the detailed studies of living organisms and their life processes.

Biology is a very important subject because humans are surrounded by different kinds of living organisms, and some biology terms (like genetics, species, infection, and cell) are very commonly used. Because of the large variety of living organisms, the field of biology is very vast. It is not surprising then that there are numerous branches of biology. The different branches of biology complement each other, and each branch requires in-depth knowledge. The most important branches of biology have been listed below

Anatomy and physiology

Anatomy is the branch of biology that studies the structure of an organism. A related field is physiology that deals with the function of different structures of an organism. These two biology branches are complementary to each other.
This branch of biology involves studying about the immunity and the ability of organisms to fight infections.


This field of biology that studies genetics, heredity and variation in living organisms.
Organism-specific biology branches
In addition to the above major fields of biology, the organism-specific biology branches are-
Mycology – Study of fungus
Phycology– Study of algae
Virology – Study of viruses
Zoology– Study of animals
Botany– Study of plants
Bacteriology– Study of bacteria
Parasitology– Study of parasitic organisms

Marine biology

This is the detailed study of all organisms living in oceans and other marine bodies.


The branch of biology dealing with extra-terrestrial life forms is called Exobiology.

Cell biology

Biology, believes that the cell is the basic unit of life. The field of cell biology involves studying the different processes of the cell.
Developmental biology
Developmental biology deals with how the different organisms grow and develop. It encompasses the knowledge about regeneration, reproduction, and differences in different types of organisms.


This branch of biology studies the ways to exploit living organisms for human uses like the production of antibiotics, biofuels, new vaccines, etc.

Molecular biology

This branch of biology deals with the formation and function of key molecules that are present in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are the most important among such molecules.

Biochemistry and Biophysics

These two biology branches integrate biology with chemistry and physics, respectively. Biochemistry is the branch of biology that studies the chemical reactions inside a living organism. Biophysics is the field that applies physics laws to living organisms.


This branch of biology studies the relationship of living organisms to their surroundings and environment.


The field of radiobiology studies the effect of radioactivity and radiations on living organisms.

Evolutionary biology

The study of different ways by which living organisms have developed during the history of the earth is included in this field.
Meta description- An understanding of different biology branches can be obtained by studying relevant biology experiments and understanding the connection between these branches. 

Written by Dr MS Khan

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